See also local files (GrayTiger):
Legislation and goverment data
Established by the Financial Stability Board (FSB), specifies 4 ontologies.
- Wikimedia is a global movement to bring free educational content to the world
The structured version of the Wikipedia encyclopedia.
- DBpedia is a crowd-sourced community effort to extract structured content from the information created in various Wikimedia projects
- Is an ongoing project at infai.org in Leipzig
- Is based on OpenLink Software's Virtuoso database
- DBpedia Slack login with Google
- DBpedia ontology
- Ontology classes
- The DBpedia Ontology is a shallow, cross-domain ontology, which has been manually created based on the most commonly used infoboxes within Wikipedia
- The ontology currently (2018-10) covers 685 classes which form a subsumption hierarchy and are described by 2,795 different properties
- DBpedia 3.2 used an infobox extraction method based on hand-generated mappings of Wikipedia infoboxes to the DBpedia ontology, where
the mappings defined rules on how to parse infobox values
- DBpedia 3.5 introduced a public wiki for writing infobox mappings, allowing external contributors to define mappings for the infoboxes
they are interested in and to extend the existing DBpedia ontology with additional classes and properties
- DBpedia 3.7 uses a directed-acyclic graph (not a tree) as ontology, so classes may have multiple superclasses, which was important for the mappings to schema.org.
A taxonomy can still be constructed by ignoring all superclasses except the one that is specified first in the list and is considered the most important.
- DBpedia SPARQL endpoint
- DBpedia extraction frameworktto extract different kinds of structured information from Wikipedia, it is written using Scala 2.8
- DBpedia Spotlight performs named entity extraction, including entity detection and name resolution, can also be used for named entity recognition
Linked Data cloud
- OpenAlex - a fully open catalog of the global research system
- Created by Arcadiafund - UK
- Agregates data sources: MAG, Crossref, ORCID, ROR, DOAJ, Unpaywall, Pubmed, Pubmed Central, The ISSN International Centre, Web crawls, Subject-area and institutional repositories from arXiv to Zenodo and everywhere in between
- Uses its own OpenAlex ID
- uses the Financial Industry Business Ontology (FIBO) as an upper-level ontology. Various aspects of the schemata of the different datasets are mapped to the corresponding FIBO classes and relationships. In this way, one can query across different datasets using FIBO. The following two modules of FIBO have been loaded into FactForge:
- Foundations, version 14-11-30 (November 2014);
- Business Entities, version 15-02-23 (February 2015)
- includes more than 1 billion facts from popular datasets such as DBpedia, Geonames, Wordnet, GLEIF, the Panama Papers, etc., as well as ontologies such as the Financial Industry Business Ontology (FIBO)
- DBPedia: only the English version of DBPedia is loaded.
- Geonames: a worldwide geographical database, which “contains over 10 million geographical names and consists of over 9 million unique features whereof 2.8 million populated places”.
- Wordnet: popular semantic dictionary for English. Words “are grouped into sets of cognitive synonyms (synsets), each expressing a distinct concept. Synsets are interlinked by means of conceptual-semantic and lexical relations”. It contains 117.000 synsets.
- WorldFacts: dataset about countries, languages, currencies and other related information. Developed by the DBPedia association and includes information derived from LEXVO, CIA World FactBook and other datasets.
- Linked Leaks: The LOD version of the Panama Papers database released by the International Consortium for Investigative Journalism (ICIJ) in May 2016. Includes “about 200,000 offshore entities that are part of the Panama Papers investigation and about more than 100,000 additional
companies that were part of the 2013 ICIJ Offshore Leaks investigation”.
- GLEI (Global Legal Entity Identifier): profiles of about 211 000 organizations, derived from the GMEI utility data dump from April 2016. “The Global Markets Entity Identifier (GMEI) utility is DTCC’s legal entity identifier solution offered in collaboration with SWIFT. The GMEI utility is a pre-Local Operating Unit of the Global Legal Entity Identifier System (GLEIS)”
- NOW News: article texts and metadata for a stream of general news. The metadata includes annotations that link mentions of entities (e.g., people or organizations) and concepts (e.g., “chocolate” or “recession”) in the news to the corresponding DBPedia and Wikidata concepts.
Applications and reasoning
Logic, Rules and Reasoners
Applications - vendors
Applications - music
- Musicbrainz.org - database and tagging service used by a.o. Amarok
- dbtune.org - hosts a number of servers, providing access to music-related structured data, in a Linked Data fashion
- Jamendo.com- a community collection of music all freely licensed under Creative Commons licenses
Applications - trust
SOLID - Tim Berners-Lee and Lalane Kagal
Solid (derived from "social linked data") is a proposed set of conventions and tools for building decentralized social
applications based on Linked Data principles. It relies as much as possible on existing W3C standards and protocols. These are:
- RDF (by default Turtle, otheriwse JSON-LD and RDFa)
- WebID 1.0 (Web Identity and Discovery) to provide universal usernames/IDs for Solid apps, and to refer to unique Agents (people, organizations, devices). WebIDs, when accessed, yield WebID Profile documents (in Turtle and other RDF formats).
- FOAF vocabulary is used both in WebID profiles, and in specifying Access Control lists.
- Authentication (for logins, page personalization and more) is done via the WebID-TLS protocol. WebID-TLS extends WebID Profiles to include references to the subject's public keys in the form of X.509 Certificates, using Cert Ontology 1.0 vocabulary. The authentication sequence is done using the HTTP over TLS protocol.
- HTML5 keygen. Unlike normal HTTPS use cases, WebID-TLS is done without referring to Certificate Authority hierarchies, and instead encourages host server-signed (or self-signed) certificates. In Solid, certificate creation is typically done in the browser using the HTML5 keygen element, to provide a one-step creation and certificate publication user experience.
- Authorization and access lists are done using Basic Access Control ontology (see also the WebAccessControl wiki page for more details).
- Support for WebID-OIDC as another primary authentication mechanism is on its way. It is based on the OAuth2/OpenID Connect protocols, adapted for WebID based decentralized use cases.
- The Linked Data Platform (LDP) standard is used for reading and writing generic Linked Data resources through HTTP operations on web resources.
Solid project and specifications
Solid and W3C
- Inrupt - commercial startup co-founded by CEO John Bruce and CTO Sir Tim Berners-Lee
- Inrupt.net - cloud-hosted instance of the open source software Node Solid Server
- Created primarily to provide open source application developers with Pods to test against
- Products include:
- Inrupt Enterprise Solid Server - A production-grade Solid server produced and supported by Inrupt
- Node Solid Server - An open source server created by MIT
Indices content available with semantic metadata
- MakoLab - web analytics - using schema.org to improve search results
Blockchain and Ontology
Linked Data browsers
Graph note keeping
- Obsidian - keep your notes in markdown and create graphs from them
- Foambubble - using VSCode and Github - from Roam research
- RoamResearch - .deb version available, account required