Structuring, representing and linking data


Local files

See also local files (GrayTiger):

Structuring and representing data

W3C and related


Security and cryptography


Verifiable Credentials

Multiple roots, graphs, blockchain


See also local files.

Application development

Application development



Mark-up languages



XML basics

XML applications

Process definitions in XML

XBRL - the XML Business Reporting Language

Check out IETF's CNRP (Common Name Resolution Protocol), which can coded be in XML. Can be used e.g. to request a statement of accounts.

XBRL and iXBRL specification

XBRL taxonomies

XBRL usage

XBRL service providers

Semantics - RDF - Turtle - SPARQL - OWL - SKOS - DC

Interesting: cryptographic definition of semantic security: QUOTE In cryptography, a semantically secure cryptosystem is one where only negligible information about the plaintext can be feasibly extracted from the ciphertext. Specifically, any probabilistic, polynomial-time algorithm (PPTA) that is given the ciphertext of a certain message m (taken from any distribution of messages), and the message's length, cannot determine any partial information on the message with probability non-negligibly higher than all other PPTA's that only have access to the message length (and not the ciphertext). This concept is the computational complexity analogue to Shannon's concept of perfect secrecy. Perfect secrecy means that the ciphertext reveals no information at all about the plaintext, whereas semantic security implies that any information revealed cannot be feasibly extracted.

Semantic Web - basics

Semantics - Turtle and RDF

Semantics - SKOS - 2009 - W3C

The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is an RDF vocabulary for representing semi-formal knowledge organization systems (KOSs), such as thesauri, taxonomies, classification schemes and subject heading lists. SKOS is based on RDF. In SKOS, conceptual resources (concepts) can be identified with URIs, semantically related through hierarchies and association networks, labeled with lexical strings, documented with notes, and aggregated into concept schemes.

SKOS can be used on its own, or in combination with more-formal languages such as OWL. SKOS can be seen as a bridging technology, providing the missing link between the rigorous logical formalism of OWL and the informal and weakly-structured world of Web-based collaboration tools, as exemplified by social tagging applications.

The aim of SKOS is not to replace original conceptual vocabularies in their initial context of use, but to allow them to be ported to a shared space, based on a simplified model, enabling wider re-use and better interoperability.

Semantics - DAML - superceded by OWL

Semantics - SPARQL - SPIN - SHACL

SPARQL - a recursive acronym for SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language. SPIN - SPARQL Inferencing Notation SHACL - Shapes Constraint Language

Semantics - W3C OWL

Semantics - SHACL

Ontologies and Vocabularies


Ontologies and Vocabularies - W3C - general

Ontologies and Vocabularies - W3C - CA and Provenance

Ontologies and Vocabularies - well-known

Dublin Core



Upper ontologies

DOLCE and related

Descriptive Ontology for Linguistic and Cognitive Engineering (DOLCE)



Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) is a top-level ontology developed by Barry Smith and his associates for the purposes of promoting interoperability among domain ontologies built in its terms through a process of downward population.


Ontology matching

OMG and related



Financial ontologies







Indices content available with semantic metadata

Ontology design patterns



EC ISA, PO, SEMIC and related


Publications Office (PO)

EC Webgate

Linking data

Linked Data concept

Linked Data is a method of publishing RDF data on the Web and of interlinking data between different data sources. Linked Data can be accessed using Semantic Web browsers. However, instead of blindly following nondescript links between HTML pages, Semantic Web browsers enable users to navigate by following self-described RDF links. It also allows the robots of Semantic Web search engines to follow these links to crawl the Semantic Web.

JSON-LD format

JSON-LD is a JSON-based format to serialize Linked Data. It is designed to be usable directly as JSON, with no knowledge of RDF. It is also designed to be usable as RDF in conjunction with other Linked Data technologies like SPARQL.


W3C core specifications

Generally speaking, the data model described by a JSON-LD document is a labeled, directed graph. JSON-LD specifies a number of syntax tokens and keywords that are a core part of the language. A normative description of the keywords is given in § 9.16 Keywords.

Selective terminology

W3C other

JSON-LD tooling




Started by Mark Musen 1987, much work done by Natasha Noy.

Graph databases


Applications using GraphDB
OpenRefine is the open source version of OntoRefine from OntoText.
Allows mapping and transformation of any structured data to RDF schema and loading it in GraphDB. Until GraphDB 10, OntoRefine was part of the GraphDB Workbench. Since GraphDB 10, OntoRefine became and independent product, Ontotext Refine. Supports the formats TSV, CSV, *SV, XLS, XLSX, JSON, XML, RDF as XML, and Google sheet. It makes use of GREL (Google Refine Expression Language) and supports a.o. SPIN SPARQL functions.
Originally Google Refine. Originally oriented to take tables as input.




Semantics - initiatives