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Rhythm

For counting refer to music counting (Wikipedia). Musicians count using numbers, “ands” and vowel sounds. Downbeats within a measure are called 1, 2, 3… Upbeats are represented with a plus sign and are called “and” (i.e. 1 + 2 +), and further subdivisions receive the sounds “ee” and “uh” (i.e. 1 e + a 2 e + a). Musicians do not agree on what to call triplets.

Scales

Basics

Hemitonic scales contain one or more semitones and anhemitonic scales do not contain semitones. The term scale is related to mode.

Scale types by number of notes contained

There are many ways to describe scales. An important notion is whether a scale is diatonic. A diatonic scale is any heptatonic scale (7 notes per octave) that includes five whole steps (whole tones) and two half steps (semitones) in each octave, in which the two half steps are separated from each other by either two or three whole steps, depending on their position in the scale. Any sequence of seven successive natural notes, such as C–D–E–F–G–A–B, and any transposition thereof, is a diatonic scale.

Modes, how whole and half tones are distributed

In music theory, the meaning of the term mode depends on context.

Its most common use may be described as a type of musical scale coupled with a set of characteristic melodic and harmonic behaviors. It is applied to major and minor keys as well as the seven diatonic modes (including the former as Ionian and Aeolian) which are defined by their starting note or tonic.

Modern modes include (W = whole tone, H = half tone): Modern Western modes use the same set of notes as the major scale, in the same order, but starting from one of its seven degrees in turn as a tonic, and so present a different sequence of whole and half steps.

Ionian mode = Ionic scale = the major scale

Is the cornerstone of western music. It is diatonic, i.e. made up of seven notes (eight if you include the octave). It is the first of the seven musical modes. E.g. C major consists of the notes C, D, E, F, G, A and B (all the white keys on a piano keyboard).

Minor scale patterns

There are three minor scale patterns:

Pentatonic scale (with 5 notes)

Pentatonic majors and minor
The standard tuning of a guitar uses the notes of an E minor pentatonic scale: E–A–D–G–B–E, contributing to its frequency in popular music.
Blues scale
The blues scale is similar to the minor pentatonic scale, but with an additional lowered fifth. The lowered fifth, also known as the "blue note", is essential in blues music. E.g. C blues scale consists of C, Eb, F, Gb, G and Bb.

Scales on guitar

Chords

Guitar chords

Chord progressions

A cadence (Latin cadentia, "a falling") is the end of a phrase in which the melody or harmony creates a sense of resolution.

In jazz, a cadence is often referred to as a turnaround, chord progressions that lead back and resolve to the tonic (for example, the ii-V-I turnaround).

Blues

Chords played over a 12-bar scheme:
I I or IV I I7
IV IV I I7
V V or IV I I or V
Chords played over C:
C C C C
F F C C
G G C C

Technology

Audacity

In 2022-01, DebbyBuster had Audacity 2.2.2 installed. Audacity allows to create and edit tracks:

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