Worldwide there exist multiple legal systems: Furthermore, the UN established UNCITRAL, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law. Their WG IV addresses Electronic Commerce, which established their Model Law on Electronic Signatures as well as on Electronic Commerce. Their WG VI addresses Security.

A selective overview of EU IT-related law

Good introduction to many topics can be found in the European on-line bookstore


Presidency, 'Better Regulation'


The implementation of the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) was based on the Recommendation on the European Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning. Reflecting the success in implementing the 2008 recommendation, a revised and strengthened Recommendation on the EQF was adopted on 22nd May 2017 by the Education, Youth, Culture and Sport Council.



The application of VAT is decided by national tax authorities but there are some standard EU rules. EU VAT legislation is based mainly on directives. A directive is binding upon each Member State to which it is addressed, but leaves the choice of form and methods to the national authorities who transpose it into national legislation.

Binding implementing measures to ensure uniform application of the VAT Directive can be found in the VAT Implementing Regulation (EU 282/2011). Those measures are directly applicable without transposition into national law. Supporting systems:


EU Telecom law

Telecom package 2002


Telecom package 2009

Telecom regulators: RED - Radio Equipment Directive




Digital services

.eu regulation

Data protection - DG Justice (formerly DG JSF)

Privacy directive

Regulation on processing of personal data by Community institutions


Data Governance

Data retention

Data - free flow

Internal Market

Connecting Europe Facility (INEA)

CEF Digital Services Infrastructures -

Sector-specific DSIs deliver trans-European online services for citizens, businesses and public administrations within one specific policy area, such as health or justice. These include eHealth, eJustice, eProcurement, Online Dispute Resolution (ODR), Electronic Exchange of Social Security Information (EESSI), Business Registry, Business Mobility, Open Data, Europeana (providing access to European cultural heritage) and Safer Internet for Children. Building block DSIs are basic DSIs to be re-used in other digital services, including eID & eSignature, eDelivery, Automated Translation, Cybersecurity and eIvoicing.


DG Internal Market (GROW)'s Single point of contact - Single Digital Gateway

Environment and CIP (Critical infrastructure Protection)


Accounting and auditing

Financial services - European System of Financial Supervision (ESFS)

The European system of financial supervision (ESFS) was introduced in 2010. It consists of: Both the ESRB and the 3 ESAs started their operation in January 2011, following the adoption of a package of legislative acts. These comprise


The European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs) are EBA, EIOPA and ESMA.

Financial services - Anti-fraud - DG JUST, DG FISMA and DG COMP (and FATF)

Financial services - Supervision - DG FISMA

Financial services - global supervision

Banking supervision is globally driven by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS started by 'the group of 10' in 1974). The BCBS's secretariat is hosted by the Bank for International Settlements (BIS). Basel II uses a "three pillars" concept: Short recap of Basel guidelines:

Financial services - European supervision

The Directorate-General for Financial Stability, Financial Services and Capital Markets Union (DG FISMA) is the Commission department responsible for EU policy on banking and finance. DG FISMA develops and carries out the Commission's policies on

The global Basel III guidelines are implemented in Europe by CRD IV and CRR, plus EBA Technical Standards en EC Delegated Acts. European legal framework starts from Article 127.6 TFUE, and the Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM) Regulation (EU 1024/2013, conferring specific tasks on the European Central Bank concerning policies relating to the prudential supervision of credit institutions).

Financial services - Credit risk

Financial services - Markets - DG FISMA

Financial services - crypto assets and DLT


Financial services - Payments


DG CONNECT - NIS - Network and Information Security

European Council, Commission and related (Euratom) Security



Terrorism and crime



Corporate governance

Supply chain

Technical standards/transparency


Electronic identity, signatures and related

  • Related: Directive (EU) No. 2019/1151 digitization of company law and electronic notaries using QES
  • EUDI/

    Digital Europe - successor to CEF


    Third Country Nationals entering the EU - VISAs

    The Visa Information System (VIS) allows Schengen States to exchange visa data, in particular data on decisions relating to short-stay visa applications. Furthermore, States may grant long-stay visas and residence permits. Smart Borders European Border and Coast Guard Visa Residence permit Passports


    Basics SBC (applies to any person crossing the internal * or external * borders of a European Union (EU) country)



    Transport and roadpricing

    Electronic vehicle registration European Electronic Toll Service - EETS

    Digital Tachograph

    Analogue tachograph First generation of digital tachograph Second generation of digital tachograph Tachonet