Structuring, representing and linking data

Contents

Local files

See also local files (GrayTiger):

Structuring and representing data

W3C and related

W3C - WWW

Security and cryptography

General

Verifiable Credentials

Multiple roots, graphs, blockchain

Applications

See also local files.

Application development

Application development

Jena

Other

Mark-up languages

HTML

XML

XML basics

XML applications

Process definitions in XML

XBRL - the XML Business Reporting Language

Check out IETF's CNRP (Common Name Resolution Protocol), which can coded be in XML. Can be used e.g. to request a statement of accounts.

XBRL and iXBRL specification

XBRL taxonomies

XBRL usage

XBRL service providers

Semantics - RDF - Turtle - SPARQL - OWL - SKOS - DC

Interesting: cryptographic definition of semantic security: QUOTE In cryptography, a semantically secure cryptosystem is one where only negligible information about the plaintext can be feasibly extracted from the ciphertext. Specifically, any probabilistic, polynomial-time algorithm (PPTA) that is given the ciphertext of a certain message m (taken from any distribution of messages), and the message's length, cannot determine any partial information on the message with probability non-negligibly higher than all other PPTA's that only have access to the message length (and not the ciphertext). This concept is the computational complexity analogue to Shannon's concept of perfect secrecy. Perfect secrecy means that the ciphertext reveals no information at all about the plaintext, whereas semantic security implies that any information revealed cannot be feasibly extracted.

Semantic Web - basics

Semantics - Turtle and RDF

Semantics - SKOS - 2009 - W3C

The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is an RDF vocabulary for representing semi-formal knowledge organization systems (KOSs), such as thesauri, taxonomies, classification schemes and subject heading lists. SKOS is based on RDF. In SKOS, conceptual resources (concepts) can be identified with URIs, semantically related through hierarchies and association networks, labeled with lexical strings, documented with notes, and aggregated into concept schemes.

SKOS can be used on its own, or in combination with more-formal languages such as OWL. SKOS can be seen as a bridging technology, providing the missing link between the rigorous logical formalism of OWL and the informal and weakly-structured world of Web-based collaboration tools, as exemplified by social tagging applications.

The aim of SKOS is not to replace original conceptual vocabularies in their initial context of use, but to allow them to be ported to a shared space, based on a simplified model, enabling wider re-use and better interoperability.

Semantics - DAML - superceded by OWL

Semantics - SPARQL - SPIN - SHACL

SPARQL - a recursive acronym for SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language. SPIN - SPARQL Inferencing Notation SHACL - Shapes Constraint Language

Semantics - W3C OWL

Semantics - SHACL

Ontologies and Vocabularies

Overviews

Ontologies and Vocabularies - W3C - general

Ontologies and Vocabularies - W3C - CA and Provenance

Ontologies and Vocabularies - well-known

Dublin Core

Other

FOAF

Upper ontologies

DOLCE and related

Descriptive Ontology for Linguistic and Cognitive Engineering (DOLCE)

CYC

BFO

Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) is a top-level ontology developed by Barry Smith and his associates for the purposes of promoting interoperability among domain ontologies built in its terms through a process of downward population.

gist

Ontology matching

OMG and related

Privacy

Legal

Financial ontologies

FIBO
GLEIF

Other

Education

Publication

Privacy

Healthcare

Indices content available with semantic metadata

Ontology design patterns

Lexicons/Thesauri

Global

EC ISA, PO, SEMIC and related

Overviews

Publications Office (PO)

EC Webgate

Linking data

Linked Data concept

Linked Data is a method of publishing RDF data on the Web and of interlinking data between different data sources. Linked Data can be accessed using Semantic Web browsers. However, instead of blindly following nondescript links between HTML pages, Semantic Web browsers enable users to navigate by following self-described RDF links. It also allows the robots of Semantic Web search engines to follow these links to crawl the Semantic Web.

JSON-LD format

JSON-LD is a JSON-based format to serialize Linked Data. It is designed to be usable directly as JSON, with no knowledge of RDF. It is also designed to be usable as RDF in conjunction with other Linked Data technologies like SPARQL.

Intro

W3C core specifications

Generally speaking, the data model described by a JSON-LD document is a labeled, directed graph. JSON-LD specifies a number of syntax tokens and keywords that are a core part of the language. A normative description of the keywords is given in § 9.16 Keywords.

Selective terminology

W3C other

JSON-LD tooling

Tools

W3C

Protégé

Started by Mark Musen 1987, much work done by Natasha Noy.

Graph databases

OntoText

GraphDB
Applications using GraphDB
OpenRefine/OntoRefine
OpenRefine is the open source version of OntoRefine from OntoText.
OntoRefine
Allows mapping and transformation of any structured data to RDF schema and loading it in GraphDB. Until GraphDB 10, OntoRefine was part of the GraphDB Workbench. Since GraphDB 10, OntoRefine became and independent product, Ontotext Refine. Supports the formats TSV, CSV, *SV, XLS, XLSX, JSON, XML, RDF as XML, and Google sheet. It makes use of GREL (Google Refine Expression Language) and supports a.o. SPIN SPARQL functions.
OpenRefine
Originally Google Refine. Originally oriented to take tables as input.

RDF4J

Other

Sundry

Semantics - initiatives