Refer also to Financial Services regulation


Markets & stock exchanges

Information providers - indexes

Brokers - providing access to the markets

Clearing & settlement - payments

Clearing & settlement - securities - CSDs

A central securities depository (CSD) holds securities such as shares either in certificated or uncertificated (dematerialized) form so that ownership can be easily transferred through a book entry rather than the transfer of physical certificates. This allows brokers and financial companies to hold their securities at one location where they can be available for clearing and settlement. This is usually done electronically, making it much faster and easier than was traditionally the case where physical certificates had to be exchanged after a trade had been completed. In some cases these organizations also carry out centralized comparison, and transaction processing such as clearing and settlement of securities transfers, securities pledges, and securities freezes.

International CSDs include: Other


Service providers/consulting/other