- Hashing introduction
- Hashing types
- Merkle-Damgaard
- Sponge as used in Keccack
- Other
- Extractable functions
- Algorithms
- Standards
- Multihash
- Hash into elliptic curve
- Accumulators
- Key derivation
- Bloom filters
- Other

- Sponge as used in Keccack

- abc

- Argon2
- Argon2 is a key derivation function that was selected as the winner of the Password Hashing Competition in July 2015.
- Designed by Alex Biryukov, Daniel Dinu, and Dmitry Khovratovich from the University of Luxembourg.
- Poseidon - ZK-friendly hash

- RIPEMD - Wikipedia - Dobbertin, Bosselaers, Preneel 1992/1996
- RIPEMD - ISO ISO/IEC 10118-3:2018(en) IT Security techniques — Hash-functions — Part 3: Dedicated hash-functions

- SHA-1 Wikipedia - US NSA, 1995, 160 bits, all major web browser vendors ceased acceptance of SHA-1 SSL certificates in 2017
- SHA-1 is a 160-bit hash standard, published in 1995 by NIST as FIPS 180-1, developed as part of the US Capstone project. The original specification was published in 1993 under the title Secure Hash Standard, FIPS PUB 180, by NIST. This version is often named SHA-0.
- It is no longer considered as cryptographically safe, see e.g. https://csrc.nist.gov/projects/hash-functions/nist-policy-on-hash-functions
- SHA-2 Wikipedia - US NSA 2001, family: SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, SHA-512, SHA-512/224, SHA-512/256
- Built using the Merkle–Damgård construction, from a one-way compression function itself built using the Davies–Meyer structure from a specialized block cipher
- First published by the NIST as a US FIPS
- SHA-3 Wikipedia - US NIST 2015,

- How to hash into elliptic curve - Thomas Icart, 2009
- Hash to curve - IETF, 2020

- to stretch keys into longer keys or
- to obtain keys of a required format, such as converting a group element that is the result of a Diffie–Hellman key exchange into a symmetric key for use with AES

- HKDF - Wikipedia - Hugo Krawczyk
- a simple key derivation function (KDF) based on HMAC
- formally described in the RFC 5869
- PBKDF2 - Wikipedia
- PBKDF2 applies a pseudorandom function, a hash-based message authentication code (HMAC), to the input password along with a salt value and repeats the process many times to produce a derived key, which can then be used as a cryptographic key in subsequent operations. The added computational work makes password cracking much more difficult, and is known as key stretching.
- PKCS#5 v2.0 - RFC 2898 - 2000 - based on the original RSA approach
- PKCS#5 v2.1 - RFC 8018 - 2017
- Password hashing competition - selected Argon2 as winner
- Argon2 - Wikipedia
- Argon2 online
- crypt - C library (POSIX) for hashing
- crypt - Unix encryption utility (obsolete) - same name as the C library but different concept
- Scrypt - Github
- Scrypt - Wikipedia - a password-based KDF
- specifically designed to make it costly to perform large-scale custom hardware attacks by requiring large amounts of memory
- published by IETF as RFC 7914 in 2016
- used in the POW of some cryptocurrencies

- If any of the bits at these positions is 0, the element is definitely not in the set; if it were, then all the bits would have been set to 1 when it was inserted.
- If all are 1, then either the element is in the set, or the bits have by chance been set to 1 during the insertion of other elements, resulting in a false positive.

- MinHash - the min-wise independent permutations locality sensitive hashing scheme, is a technique for quickly estimating how similar two sets are
- FeatureHashing - is a fast and space-efficient way of vectorizing features, i.e. turning arbitrary features into indices in a vector or matrix